Monday, May 25, 2020
Like de Kluyver argued in his publish (A primer on Corporate Governance, 2009), Ã¢â¬Å"there is a presumption that, in making a business decision, the directors acted on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest belief that the action was taken in the best interest of the corporation.Ã¢â¬ However, even though the bar has been set, the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"best interest of the corporationÃ¢â¬ is open for every business directors to interpret. In the case of Enron, the rule had been bent so hard that it finally broke. The company was originally established as an energy provider in the US. In 1970s, the CEO of Enron seized the chance of US energy market deregulation and navigated the company into a new and attractive business Ã¢â¬â energy trading.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because of the massive company structure, when the bubble broke in 2001, a numerous amount of people took the hit. The stockholders of Enron scandal include company employees, board of directors , Arthur Anderson accounting firm, Vinson Elkins law firm, and the general public of the society. There were specific internal control protocols and external audit agreements designed to prevent the tragic from happening. However, just like my classmate Likhita said during the class discussion (Thought and Discourse, September 16, 2015), Ã¢â¬Å"People will always find the loopholeÃ¢â¬ . In terms of internal control failing, first of all, the malfunction of the board of directors would be our primary concern. Enron Board of Directors clearly failed to oversight company operations. In United States Senate Subcommittee report (The role of the board of the directors in EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s collapse, Permanent subcommittee on investigations, 2002), committee memebrs indicated that Ã¢â¬Å"The Board witnessed numerous indications of questionable practices by Enron management over several years, but chose to ignore them to the detriment of Enron shareholders, employees and business associates.Ã¢â¬ Moreover, the Board of Directors directly violated EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics and agreed the company from trading with several SPE (includes LJM1) run by its own CFO, Andrew Fastow. Such transactions were not designed to generate legit business profit, nor providingShow MoreRelatedcorporate governance1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExecutive Summary: Corporate governance is an essential part of modern company operations and management , it relates to business ethics, code of conduct and system to manage a company. However, there are many corporate scandals due to the failure of corporate governance. This report analyzes the corporate governance from multiple aspects. It is through the understanding the relationship between corporate governance and business ethics, evaluating the ASX principles as a guidelines to corporate governanceRead MoreThe Importance Of Disclosure And Transparency Within The Corporate Governance Structure1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCurrent Evidence While specific corporate governance rules often are controversial, most observers agree on the importance of disclosure and transparency within the corporate governance structure. Some could argue that disclosure may be costly and so effort and money spent on disclosure should be reduced to save costs during times of financial difficulties and limited resource availability. Yet, Isenmann Lenz (2000) show that the use of new information technologies has had an enormous impact onRead MoreU.s. Corporate Governance System990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis review intends to explain the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s U.S. corporate governance system. Moreover, it tries to explain the system and rules for making decision of the board of directors, managers, stakeholders, and shareholders. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Primer on Corporate GovernanceÃ¢â¬ , author Cornelis A. de Kluyver, dean of the University of Oregon, provides an explanation of the American system on corporate governance. De Kluyver writes this book for stu dents and executives who wish to enter the world of management; that includesRead MoreBehavior1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION Corporate Governance / PUNB 413 students are required to prepare an individual assignment which is includes preparing summary of at least two articles that related to ISSUES IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE focusing on Directors Remuneration and CEO Compensation. The article that I selected is mainly focus on Directors Remuneration, Corporate Performance, Board Characteristics and factors that influence in determining the Directors Remuneration and CEO compensation. This assignment plays a vitalRead MoreSample Resume : Corporate Goverance Essay1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTRANSPARECY OF CORPORATE GOVERANCE By MANSI AGARWAL A3104614002 B.Com. (Hons.) 2014-17 Under the Supervision of MRS. PUNEETA GOEL In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor Of Commerce (Honours) at AMITY COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND FINANCE AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH SECTOR 125, NOIDA - 201303, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA 2015 DECLARATION BY CANDIDATE I hereby declare that the project report entitled Ã¢â¬ËTRANSPARECY OF CORPORATE GOVERANCEÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreFinancial Analysis : Japans Financial Markets1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesINTRODUCTION In March 2015, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s Financial Markets Agency for the first time in its history set out Corporate Governance Code and a year earlier Stewardship Code. Even though some efforts towards corporate governance and transparency have been made in Japan previously, specifically introduction of dual system in 2003, they did not gain popularity. Only 40 out of 3,000 firms adopted this system immediately rising to 112 five years later. However, these codes were necessary due to the pressureRead MoreOwnership And Control Of A Country s Corporate Governance System1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincreasingly complex, with corporate governance frameworks meant to minimise agency issues, arising through the separation of ownership and control. In lieu of high profile collapses and the global financial crisis, governments have seen fit to introduce mechanisms aiming at governing the modern corporation, in an effort to quell any further issues. Legislative reform in Australia resulted in the implementation of Corporate Law Economic Reform Program (Audit Reform and Corporate Disclosure) Act 2004 (Cth)Read MoreInformation technology for managers1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages and Japan. Locate your local office at: international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your lifelong learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com/coursetechnology Visit our corporate website at www.cengage.com Microsoft, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Vista are registered trademarks of MicrosoftÃ ® Corporation. Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identificationRead MoreSplitting the Ceo Chairman1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCorporate Governance: Separating the CEO and the Chairman Roles Reference: Millstein Center Publication Name: D O Diary Publication Date: Tuesday, April 14, 2009 Article by : Kevin LaCroix Article summary: Many voices are calling public companies to separate the Chairman and CEO functions and to make this model a default governance structure and many evidences shows advantages of that. Pushing to separate the two roles is not a new idea, but it has gained support from many sources latelyRead MoreCorporate Governance : A Troubled Economy Essay1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconcept of corporate governance. The Institute of Financial Auditors said that the Corporate Governance is constituted of processes and structures implemented by the board of directors to inform, direct, manage and monitor the operations of an organization towards reaching its goals. Internal audit tells us that an organization reach its objective by bringing a disciplined, systematic approach to improve and evaluate the effectiveness of risk management, internal controls and governance process. The
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 393 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: The Louisiana Purchase Essay Did you like this example? The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a land deal between the United States and France, in which the U.S. acquired approximately 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River. The territory stretched from the Mississippi River to the west of the United States. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Louisiana Purchase: A Deal Between the US and France" essay for you Create order Its southernmost tip was the city of New Orleans and the North included Minnesota, North Dakota, and Montana up to the border of Canada. Today, the land included in the purchase comprises about ? of the United States territory. The louisiana purchase is significant in American history because it helped the U.S. acquire almost half of the land we live on today and nearly doubled the size of the U.S. It also helped the U.S. because it helped them gain control of the Mississippi River. The U.S. had been growing rapidly. In search of new land to plant crops and raise livestock. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was who sold the Louisiana property and he sold it because his attention was being consumed by the war and began to saw the territory as a burden. In 1803 Napoleon sold the territory. He decided to sell 828,000 square miles to the U.S. for the amazing price of 15 million U.S. dollars. At first Napoleon refused to sell. He had hopes of creating a massive empire that included the Americas. Soon, Napoleon began to have troubles in Europe and need money desperately and ended up selling the territory. Napoleon also didnt mind selling the land as he thought it would hurt his enemy, England. Thomas Jefferson The Louisiana purchase occurred during the third presidency of the United States, The president at this time was Thomas Jefferson. In 1803 the Louisiana purchase added Creoles and French settlers to the U.S. population. The Louisiana purchase also re-ignited controversy over the spread of slavery in the U.S. The Louisiana purchase was a treaty. Why? Because the Constitution grants the president the power to negotiate treaties which is exactly what Thomas Jefferson did. Lewis and Clark Expedition The Louisiana territory was so big that Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an expedition to explore the newly bought territory. Tragedy; Slavery and the Civil War The issue of slavery in the Western land of the territory became a major issue in later years and part of the cause of the American Civil War.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Wiesel once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I swore never to be silent whenever wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation. We must take sides. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victimÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel par. 9). The inspiring man known as Elie Wiesel was born on September 30, 1928 in Sighet, Romania. He was declared chairman of Ã¢â¬Å"The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Commission on the HolocaustÃ¢â¬ . Wiesel earned the reputation of Ã¢â¬Å"worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading spokesman on the HolocaustÃ¢â¬ because of his extensive discussions about the Holocaust and the impact it had on Jews (Ã¢â¬Å"Elie Wiesel-FactsÃ¢â¬ par. 1). WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s early life was unfortunate; his parents and his sister died in the concentration camps that were held by the Germans. Fortunately, Wiesel survived the harsh conditions of the camps. He believed he survived because it was Ã¢â¬Å"nothing more than chanceÃ¢â¬ instead of it being a miracle; regardless, he lived to tell his story about the Holocaust (Wiese l 7). Elie WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts on portraying how bad the Holocaust was allowed him to change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception by fighting against indifference and by showing the severity of his experiences. Due to the fact that the Germans created concentration camps during the course of WWII, many people were tortured and murdered to death. WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s family was captured and brought to the camps; unfortunately, his mother and sister perished before they could escape the camp. His father died as soon as the camp became liberated. However, Wiesel was able to endure the camp long enough to surviveShow MoreRelatedNehru and Partition5844 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesCongress behind him he could never rule IndiaÃ¢â¬ . And Gandhi did indeed oblige; he made sure Nehru was elected President of the Congress in 1929, 1936 and 1946 at the expense of Patel and Subhash Chandra Bose. However during the late 1930s and early 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, Nehru would begin to increasingly undermine his mentor. NehruÃ¢â¬â¢s socialist beliefs lead him to believe that the Hindu-Muslim conflict was a result of economic disparities and the British Ã¢â¬Ëdivide and ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ policy, rather than dogmatic religious beliefsRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesLinda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesinteresting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the practical world of organizations. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ sound scholarship and transparent style of writing set the book apart, making it an ingeniousRead More1000 Word Essay85965 Words Ã |Ã 344 PagesPage 8 / 389 Ã © Copyright 1999-2012 ArmyStudyGuide.com Version 5.3 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Advanced Skills Education Program (ASEP) High School Completion Program Service members Opportunity Colleges Associates Degree Program (SOCAD) Veteran s Educational Assistance Program (VEAP)/Montgomery G. I. Bill (MGIB) Skill Recognition Programs Command Language Programs (Head start - Gateway) Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support (DANTES) Education Counseling Services Learning Resource
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
This idea reflects the concept that each person when works for his/her own benefit inadvertently helps to create benefit for all. This can only be done by creating an environment for free trade and free from any government intervention which can promote individuals and firms to maximize their returns by efficient utilization of resources. This concept of laissez-faire, leave it aloneÃ¢â¬ , came into prominence with the advent of political and economic liberalism in Europe. As long as markets are free and competitive, the actions of private individuals, motivated by self-interest, would work together for the greater good of society. For past two centuries, two economic principles and policies have dominated the political debate, one being social democracy, which favours government intervention, and the other being liberalism, favouring laissez-faire. In general, liberals hold laissez-faire to be the key to economic growth, prosperity, and rising standards of living. Conservatives, on the other hand, favour regulation as a necessary means to achieve social justice, and to protect the weak from being quashed by the strong. We will write a custom essay sample on Laissez Faire or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the modern world today, some forms of government intervention are required even in laissez-faire to establish the ground rules for free enterprise. The role of government in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world cannot be eliminated even in countries which may seem to follow the policy of Laissez-faire but the extents to which these government policies have played their roles in such countries have differed. The main aim of government regulations and checks is to ensure that Capitalists, which follow the Laissez-faire concept, does not have unchecked power over the weaker sections of the society. Government regulation of private industry can be divided into two categories economic regulation and social regulation. Economic regulation seeks to control prices, designed to protect consumers and small businesses from more powerful companies. Social regulation, on the other hand, promotes objectives such as safer workplaces or a cleaner environment. Social regulations seek to discourage or prohibit harmful corporate behaviour and to encourage behaviour deemed socially desirable. As an example, the government sets emissions standards for factories and also provides tax breaks to companies that offer their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ health and retirement benefits that meet certain standards. Government has played a significant role in major economic reforms in the world, thus establishing that the Laissez-faire economic policy does not hold true in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. All governments in the economy work towards allocation of scarce resources among competing users. Fiscal policy of government which includes government purchases of goods and services, taxes and transfers affect the distribution of income and aggregate demand and thus influences economic activity. During times of recession, the role of government is altogether more important since it works towards stabilizing the economy with its fiscal policy, also providing unemployment benefits during these times. Industries facing strong competition from abroad have long appealed for protections through trade policy. A look at US economy would reassure the significance of the role of government in easing hardships with the New Deal during the Great Depression. It created many Ã U. S. regulatory agencies that seem indispensable today like Ã the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission, security and exchange commission, social security system etc. protecting the rights of workers and consumers. It Enforces workplace safety and health codes, regulates nearly every product sold in the US so that safety standards are met and consumers canÃ¢â¬â¢t be misled. American agriculture, almost totally in private hands, has benefited from government assistance with government providing subsidies to farmers and agribusinesses. In a country like India where there is huge disparity in terms of income, government can influence overall distribution of income and wealth by applying higher tax rates on the rich and increasing welfare benefits for the poor. Government action plays a role in improving information to help consumers and producers value the true cost of a product. It also protects the smaller industries as well as regulates FDI, etc. Historically the economic policy ofÃ Hong Kong was based on Laissez-faire economic policy of positive non-interventionism which restricted the role of government to respond whenÃ industriesÃ with social obligations ran into trouble and when an institution needed regulation to prevent inequitable practices. However, Hong Kong has not been as non-interventionist as earlier. The government has intervened to create economic institutions such as the Hong Kong Stock Market which is the 6th largest by market capitalisation,Ã and has been involved in public works projects and social welfare spending. Also, certain restrictions to free trade between nations such as China and the U. S. helped Hong Kong to thrive. But it is also important to stress the fact that too much of government intervention can take away opportunities for the growth of the entrepreneurs and researchers. Innovations and new technology, which play a significant role in the progress of the economy, can get hampered too. Too much of government intervention also brings corruption in the economy and leads to politicization of business decisions in the private organizations. There is the risk that, in order to achieve political objectives (like preserving jobs), the government continues sinking money into certain companies money that would do a better job of creating jobs elsewhere in the economy. As a result, government positions in private companies need to be managed according to clear rules and with a high degree of transparency.
Friday, April 10, 2020
He was therefore vehemently critical of the hypocracies of Brahmanism. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar declared his firm resolve to change his religion in 1935 at Nasik district in Maharashtra Ã¢â¬Å"I was born a Hindu and I had no choice about that. But I will not die a HinduÃ¢â¬ . THE NAGPUR DHAMMA DIKSHA : Ambedkar had been attracted towards Buddhism since his student days. On further study, he was convinced that the Ã¢â¬ËuntouchablesÃ¢â¬â¢ could attain social equality and psychological liberation only through the teachings of Buddha. He undertook a detailed study of the religion and met numerous Buddhist scholars. He was greatly influenced by the writings of P. L. Narasu and other Tamil Buddhists, and also of Mahatma Jotiba Phule, a nineteenth century radical social reformer of Maharashtra. Ambedkar claimed that he had three gurus the Buddha, Kabir and Jotiba Phule. He travelled to Ceylon and Burma to see Buddhism being practised in these countries. We will write a custom essay sample on Ambedkar and Buddhism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the World Buddhist Brotherhood held at Rangoon (Burma) in 1954, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar delivered a historic speech and gave a clarion call: it would be a grave error to suppose that Buddhism disappeared from India without leaving its influence on Indian people and their culture. Dr. Ambedkar had made a meticulous study of all the contemporary world religions for nearly twenty years, after which he came to the conclusion that if the world must have a religion, then it can only be the religion of the Buddha. The year 1956 marks the beginning of a new era for the revival of Buddhism in the land of its origin. It was the year of the 2500th Buddha Jayanti and was celebrated all over the Buddhist world. Pandit Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, described this event as the Ã¢â¬Å"homecoming of BuddhismÃ¢â¬ . Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar embraced Buddhism along with more than five lakh followers on the auspicious day of Ashoka Vijaya Dashmi (Dasera) on 14th October 1956. The oldest bhikkhu then in India, Mahasthavira Chandramani of Burma, came to Nagpur for the conversion ceremony, and initiated Ambedkar into Buddhism. The world witnessed this great event as an unprecedented phenomenon of mass conversion. This historical event acknowledges Dr. Ambedkar as the greatest revivalist of Buddhism in modern times and enhances the importance of his thoughts and interpretation of Buddhism. Another huge ceremony was held in Bombay ten days after AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s death in which Andhra Kausalyayana, a Pali scholar and Hindi speaking Punjabi Brahmana monk, initiated thousands to Buddhism. But these massive conversions mainly affected only low castes, particularly the Mahars of Maharashtra, the community of Ambedkar, who had been involved for decades in a battle for political, social and religious rights. Their conversion, however, made the authority of Ã¢â¬ËBabasahebÃ¢â¬â¢ Ambedkar unquestioned for them. A few even refer to him as a Ã¢â¬ËSecond BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢ and describe the Nagapur Diksha as a new Dharma Chakra Pravartana. THE Ã¢â¬ËBIBLEÃ¢â¬â¢ OF AMBEDKAR MOVEMENT : The chief vehicle for transmitting and interpreting the new faith of Ambedkar is his book The Buddha and his Dhamma. (Ambedkar, B. R. The Buddha and his Dhamma, Bombay 1974). It was written in English at the end of his life, published posthumously, and subsequently translated into Hindi and Marathi. It is a rationalized biography of the Buddha and contains a selection from Buddhist Pali works. In it the events of BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s life are narrated in free style. AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s aim was to produce a Ã¢â¬ËBibleÃ¢â¬â¢, and so it has been, and continues to be, for his followers. For many of those who can read, it is the only Buddhist text which they have read, and for most of those who are illiterate, it is the only one which they have heard, having been read aloud to them. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Buddha and his DhammaÃ¢â¬â¢, Dr. Ambedkar gave a unique interpretation of Buddhism. He had undertaken an in depth study and found the real teachings of Buddha. He substantiated his radical interpretation by presenting sermons and discourses of the Buddha delivered in various places. By his deep study of Buddhism, Dr. Ambedkar could bring out the original social message of Buddha. He was totally convinced by and extolled the teachings of the Buddha as the only panacea for the downtrodden and suffering masses, Ambedkar was fully convinced that the basic and ideal formation of our present society should be on the basis of Buddhism. Ambedkar recalled that the Buddha had commanded the first batch of sixty disciples in the following words, Ã¢â¬Å"go ye forth, monks and wander, for the gain of many, for the welfare of the many, out of compassion, for the worlds, for the good, for the gain and for the welfare of gods and man. Ã¢â¬ Dr. Ambedkar wanted to emphasize that Ahimsa and Peace were not the only messages given by Buddha to the humanity. He had also laid emphasis on equal opportunity to all, equal status for all (men and women), freedom of thought and universal brotherhood. Dr. Ambedkar determines the authenticity of the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings by the following criterion, Ã¢â¬Å"There is one test which is available. If there is anything which could be said with confidence, it is: He (the Buddha) was nothing if not rational, if not logical. Anything, therefore, which is rational and logical, other things being equal, may be taken to be the word of the Buddha. The second thing is that the Buddha never cared to enter into a discussion which was not profitable for manÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare. Therefore, anything attributed to the Buddha which did not relate to manÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare cannot be accepted to be the word of the BuddhaÃ¢â¬ . (Ambdkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay, 1974, IV. V. 12. 4). Thus Dr. Ambedkar greatly emphasised on the above two characteristics of the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings, their rationality on one hand, and their social message on the other. Ambedkar describes Buddha as Ã¢â¬Å"a reformer, full of the most earnest moral purpose and trained in all the intellectual culture of his time, who had the originality and the courage to put forth deliberately and with a knowledge of opposing views, the doctrine of a salvation to be found here, in this life, in inward change of heart to be brought about by the practice of self-culture and self-controlÃ¢â¬ . Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay, 1974, II. II. 7. 7). Dr. B. R. Ambedkar stated that Buddha was totally opposed to the Brahmanical belief of the infallibility of the Vedas. For to accept the infallibility of the Vedas meant complete denial of freedom of thought, to know the truth, one has to enjoy the freedom of thought. He also rejected the rituals and sacrifices. According to Dr. Ambedkar, Brahmanism propagated graded inequality, in the form of the Ã¢â¬ËChaturvarnaÃ¢â¬â¢ or the four fold caste system, dividing the society into Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The Shudras and women were fully denied human rights, like the right to education, the ultimate means for achieving freedom. These were the reasons why the Buddha rejected Brahmanism, where as his Dhamma teaches the right relationship between man and man in all spheres of life. AMBEDKARÃ¢â¬â¢s POINTS OF DEPARTURE FROM TRADITIONAL BUDDHISM : Ambedkar introduced a number of innovations in traditional Buddhism. These deviations or innovations may not be regarded as isolated phenomena. Fresh views on the Buddhist social ethics have been expressed in other countries of South and South-East Asia also, though evidently in AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s Buddhism, the degree of divergence from traditional doctrine is much greater. Thus Ambedkar and his views can be seen as a part of a larger phenomenon of Ã¢â¬ËmodernisationÃ¢â¬â¢ of Buddhism in Asia. 1. The Ã¢â¬ËrationalismÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Buddha serves chiefly, in AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s Buddhism, to deny the existence of God and Ã¢â¬ËatmanÃ¢â¬â¢ whereas Buddha maintained silence on these questions, Ambedkar was very vocal and explicit on this question. According to Ambedkar there is no God who created from his body the four varnas (as opposed to Purusha Sukta of Rig Veda), and there is no atman to transmigrate and visit the sins of one life upon the next. Ambedkar wrote about BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s first sermon, Ã¢â¬Å"He began by saying that his Dhamma had nothing to do with God and soul. His Dhamma had nothing to do with life after deathÃ¢â¬ . (Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay 1974, II. II. 2. 14). Thus, according to Ambedkar, along with rationality and egalitarianism, Ã¢â¬ËatheismÃ¢â¬â¢ is an important element of Buddhism. . AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection of the existence of atman led him to the rejection of Ã¢â¬Ëbelief in Samsara, i. e. , transmigration of the soulÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëbelief in moksha or salvation of the soulÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëbelief in Karma (as) the determination of manÃ¢â¬â¢s position in present lifeÃ¢â¬â¢. (Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay 1974, I. VII. 1. 1). 3. Ambedk ar interpreted the traditional Buddhist concept of Ã¢â¬ËdukkhaÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ësorrow and suffering in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢ as a social phenomenon. According to Ambedkar, Ã¢â¬ËManÃ¢â¬â¢s misery is the result of manÃ¢â¬â¢s inequity to manÃ¢â¬â¢. (Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay 1974, III. V. 2. 16). 4. Ambedkar gives a new account of the Mahabhinishkramana (Great Renunciation) of Gautama Siddhartha. According to him the cause for GautamaÃ¢â¬â¢s renunciation of his princely life were not the traditional Four sights. Instead, he suggests that the renunciation was the result of GautamaÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to support a Sakya military action against the Koliya tribe in a feud over water rights. Siddhartha went into voluntary exile as a parivrajaka as he was determined not to participate in war. Ambedkar probably derived the idea for this interpretation of Mahabhinishkramana from the writing of Dharmanand Kosambi, who in his Ã¢â¬ËBhagavan BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢ published originally in 1940, had criticised the credibility of the story of the Four Sights and had turned to the Rohini water dispute that is described in the Kunala Jataka, in which the Buddha intercedes and recites the Attadanda Sutta decrying conflict and the use of force. 5. Ambedkar played down the role of Sangha in the history of Buddhism. According to him the difference between upasakas (lay-worshippears) and bhikkhus (monks) as to initiation of diksha turned out to be a grievous one Ã¢â¬Å"Sangha-Diksha included both, initiation into the sangha as well as into the Dhamma. But there was no separate Dhamma-Diksha for those who wanted to be initiated into the Dhamma, but did not wish to become members of the sangha. This was a grave omission. It was one of the causes which ultimately led to the downfall of Buddhism in IndiaÃ¢â¬ . Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, Bombay 1974, V. IV. 1. 10-12). To amend this Ã¢â¬Ëgrave omissionÃ¢â¬â¢ Ambedkar invented the Dhamma-Diksha ceremony for the laity. He publicly expressed the opinion that the majority of modern bhikkhus had Ã¢â¬Ëneither learning nor service in themÃ¢â¬â¢, and urged monks to follow the example of Christian missionaries to reach the masses. 6. According to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s aboriginal stock had common ethnic roots which he id entified as Naga. Dr. Ambedkar pointed out in his conversion speech that Nagas were the chief propagators, who Ã¢â¬Å"spread the teachings of Bhagavan Buddha all over IndiaÃ¢â¬ . The Koliyas, to whom Siddartha was related on his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s side, belonged to this ethnic stock. So the Nagas were connected to the DhammaÃ¢â¬â¢s origins through blood, and were instrumental in its spread. Many of his followers see a symbolic significance in the choice of Nagpur, city of the Nagas, for the mass conversion of 1956. 7. The inclusion of Ã¢â¬ËBabasahebÃ¢â¬â¢ ambedkar as object of reverence is the most visible innovation adopted by his followers. Though Ambedkar is not worshipped as a God, but on every special occasion, his figure is garlanded after Gautam BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s, incense is burnt, and Bhagwan Gautama Buddha and Paramapujya Babasaheb Ambedkar are addressed before any speech is delivered. Ambedkar is regarded as a Bodhisattva by some of his followers in recognition of his role as the saviour of modern Indian converts to Buddhism. Another way of honouring Ambedkar, is to include his name in the list of refuges i. e. , Ã¢â¬ËBhimam Sarvam gachchhamiÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËI go for refuge to BhimraoÃ¢â¬â¢ (Zelliot, Eleanor, op. ity P. 144) Ã¢â¬â thus the Ã¢â¬ËThree JewelsÃ¢â¬â¢ becoming four. 8. The Buildings dedicated to the Buddhist religion of AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s movement are not called temples or Ã¢â¬ËmandiraÃ¢â¬â¢, but Ã¢â¬ËviharasÃ¢â¬â¢. The Buddhist Ã¢â¬ËviharasÃ¢â¬â¢ were originally living quarters for the monks. But these Ã¢â¬ËviharasÃ¢â¬â¢ are places where BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s images are kept, and t he community can gather for lectures on Buddhism or for Ã¢â¬ËvandanaÃ¢â¬â¢ or songs. For the Ambedkarian Buddhists, the vihara serves mainly as a community centre (Zelliot, Eleanor, op. Cit. ,P. 146). 9. In 1956, when Ambedkar and his followers converted to Buddhism, there were very few Buddhist bhikkus in India, and none of them had Marathi as mother tongue. So in the beginning, Ambedkarian Buddhism was propagated by his Republican Party. However, soon, deeply influenced by Ambedkar, young Marathi leaders arose at the local level. The only Maharashtrian center for the training of bikkhus is that at Nagpur, where Bhadanta Ananda Kausalyayana built in 1970, a home and training center for Buddhist bhikkhus, on the same grounds where the 1956 mass conversion had taken place. 10. The followers of Ambedkar celebrate four great occasions Ã¢â¬â Dhamma Diksha Day, Buddha Jayanti, AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s Death Memorial Day, and Ambedkar Jayanti. ASSESSMENT OF THE MOVEMENT : The innovations in AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s Buddhist movement represent those elements in the past of the Buddhists that are important for their present progress: the exemplary work of Ambedkar himself, their social unity in the face of continued prejudice and their rejection of Hinduism as a religion of inequality. There is some retention of Hindu or traditional Indian customs Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬ËguruÃ¢â¬â¢ idea, the public processions, and the days honouring the birth and death of great men. Along with this amalgam of traditional Buddhism, the Mahar past, and the socio-religious practices of Hindu society in general, the Buddhist followers of Ambedkar have made some innovations on their own. The multi-purpose viharas and the initiative and responsibility of the lay leaders The innovations in AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s Buddhist movement represent those elements in the past of the Buddhists that are important for their present progress: the exemplary work of Ambedkar himself, their social unity in the face of continued prejudice and their rejection of Hinduism as a religion of inequality. There is some retention of Hindu or traditional Indian customs Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬ËguruÃ¢â¬â¢ idea, the public processions, and the days honouring the birth and death of great men. Along with this amalgam of traditional Buddhism, the Mahar spast, and the socio-religious practices of Hindu society in general, the Buddhist followers of Ambedkar are the most striking of these. (Zelliot, Eleanor, p. 150-51). Thus Dr. Babasaheb AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion to Budhdism on 14th October, 1956 with his lakhs of followers was indeed an epoch-making istorical event. Not only did it become a culminating point in his personal life, but it created for him a permanent place in the modern history of social and cultural transformation in India, and in the world at large. For nearly three decades Dr. Ambedkar had studied the comparative philosophical doctrines of different religions. He ultimately reached the conclusion that it was the philosophy of the Buddha that commanded permanent relevance to h uman society. He interpreted Buddhism in his own unique way so as to make it more relevant in the context of ever changing human society. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1 Ambedkar, B. R. , The Buddha and His Dhamma, 1974 2 Goyal, S R, Buddhism in Indian History and Culture, 2004 3 Basham, A L, The wonder that was India, 1998 4 Mungekar, Bhalchandra, Buddhism and the Contemporary World- An Ambedkarian Perspective,2007 5 Jaini, S Padmanabh, Collected Papers on Buddhist Studies, 2001 6 Bapat, P V, 2500 Years of Buddhism,1964
Monday, March 9, 2020
The Final Debate essays The third and last debate was held on Wednesday, October 13, 2004. The debate, between President George Bush and Senator John Kerry, was a debate on domestic issues. Overall, I believe George Bush won the debate because he enforced equality among Americans, assured seniors about the Social Security system, and stated the facts on education in the country. Bush stated that improved education is the surest route to equality for all Americans. But let me talk about what's really important for the worker you're referring to, and that's to make sure the education system works, it's to make sure we raise standards. Listen, the No Child Left Behind Act is really a jobs act, when you think about it. The No Child Left Behind Act says we'll raise standards, we'll increase federal spending. But in return for extra spending, we now want people to measure, states and local jurisdictions to measure, to show us whether or not a child can read or write or add and subtract, said President Bush. President Bush assures that each child will obtain the necessary education to receive a college diploma. Bush shows that by measuring early, when they find a problem, they spend extra money to correct it. When Bush was asked about the estimated $1 trillion deficit the Social Security system faces, he sought to assure seniors that they are still going to get their checks as he tries to get Congress to consider reforms that would partially privatize the system for younger workers. I remember the 2000 campaign people said if George W. gets elected, your check will be taken away. Well, people got their checks. And they'll continue to get their checks, stated the President. Bush proved that the seniors continued to get their checks. Last, after Kerry accused Bush of cutting Pell Grants, a need-based college scholarship, Bush altered the accusation when he pointed out accurately that about 1 million more st ...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Current Issues in Computing - Essay Example On the other hand there is differing perception in the manufacturers and the users in the heat density reduction parameters, which need rationalization. Thermal management also needs to be included while designing devices and the issue is likely to become more complex over the years. Reduction of power is also related to power aware computing, which is designing software and hardware to ensure optimum management of power. The growth of information technology has spawned a vast industry based around computers and information science. The impetus to economies and employment provided by computing ignores the silent yet alarming environmental hazard posed by systems compressed in small spaces requiring enormous amounts of power and generating large quantities of heat. Heat generated by computers is easily calculable, but one seldom takes into account the heat of hundreds of humans working in small spaces. There is increased awareness of environmental hazards of power and heat in computing, which are being addressed by the industry and academicians. The main issues to be considered are the nature and magnitude of the threat and measures that can be taken to minimize or overcome these. This is being carried out by a study of two prominent trends in computing environment, heat density and power aware computing. In this section we will examine the trends in power consumption and resulting heat dissipation in computers and data processing as well as storage systems and central office type telecommunications equipment. A White Paper, Ã¢â¬Å"Heat Density Trends in data Processing, Computer Systems and Telecommunications EquipmentÃ¢â¬ is the main source of the study. (Uptime Institute: 2000). A number of other papers and presentations have also been considered to validate the trends in the Uptime Institute paper. There is a general feeling of smugness in the computing world generated by the